TTU Home Biology Home Page Dr. Ximena E. Bernal

TTU Biology: Faculty

Bernal, Ximena

411 Biological Sciences


Office Phone: (806) 742-2590

Personal Website:


Assistant Professor
  • Ph.D., Ecology, Evolution & Behavior. University of Texas at Austin (2007)
  • M.S., Physiology & Behavior, Universidad de los Andes, Colombia (2001)
  • B.S., Biology, Universidad de los Andes (1998)
Research Interests

My interests lie at the interface between behavior, evolution and ecology. My research focuses on animal communication. I address questions about signal function and evolution by performing experiments within a naturalistic context.

My research goals are to understand the evolution of heterospecific eavesdropping, and establish the role of natural selection in constraining the evolution of mating signals. To do this I plan to integrate techniques to study behavior with anatomy, physiology, parasitology and phylogenetics.

(see more about my projects in my website at )


Selected Publications

Bernal, X. E., Akre, K. L., Baugh, A. T., Rand, A. S. & Ryan, M. J. 2009. Female and male behavioral response to advertisement calls of variable complexity in túngara frogs, Physalaemus pustulosus. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 63:1269-1279

Bernal, X. E., Rand, A. S. & Ryan, M. J. 2009. Task differences confound sex differences in receiver permissiveness in túngara frogs. Proc Roy Soc London B 276:1323-1329.

Cummings, M. E., Bernal, X. E., Reynaga, R., Rand, A. S. & Ryan M. J. 2008. Visual Sensitivity to a Conspicuous Male Cue Varies by Reproductive State in Physalaemus pustulosus females. J Exp Biol 211:1203-1210.

Ryan, M. J., Bernal, X. E., & Rand, A. S. 2007. Patterns of mating call preferences in túngara frogs, Physalaemus pustulosus. J Evol Biol 20:2235-2247.

Bernal, X. E., Rand, A. S. & Ryan, M. J. 2007. Sexual differences in the behavioral response of túngara frogs, Physalaemus pustulosus, to cues associated with increased predation risk. Ethology 113:755-763.

Bernal, X. E, Rand, A. S. & Ryan, M. J. 2007. Sexual differences in receiver permissiveness to advertisement calls in túngara frogs, Physalaemus pustulosus. Anim Behav 73:955-964.

Bernal, X. E., Page, R. A., Rand, A. S & Ryan, M. J. 2007. Cues for eavesdroppers: Do frog calls indicate prey density and quality? Am Nat 169: 412-415.

Lampert, K.P., Bernal, X.E., Rand, A.S., Mueller, U.G. & Ryan, M.J. 2007. Island populations of Physalaemus pustulosus: history influences genetic diversity and morphology. Herpetologica 63(3):311-320.

Page, R. A & Bernal, X. E. 2006. Quick guide Túngara frogs. Current Biology 16(23): R979-R780.

Bernal, X. E., Rand, A. S. & Ryan, M. J. 2006. Acoustic preferences and localization performance of blood-sucking flies (Corethrella Coquillett). Behav Ecol 17:709-715.

Pauly, G. B., Bernal, X. E., Ryan, M. J. & Rand, A. S. 2006. The role of the vocal sac in increasing call rate in Physalaemus pustulosus. Physiol Biochem Zool 79:708-719.

Lampert, K. P., Bernal, X.E., Rand A. S., Mueller, U. G. & Ryan, M. J. 2006. No evidence for female mate choice based on genetic similarity in the túngara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus. Behav Ecol Soc 59:796-804.

Bernal, X. E, Guarnizo, C. and Luddecke, H. 2005. Geographic variation in the advertisement call and genetic structure of the Andean frog Colostethus palmatus. Herpetologica 61(4): 395-408.

Lüddecke, H., Amézquita, A., Bernal, X., Guzmán, F. 2000. Partitioning of vocal activity in a neotropical highland-frog community. Stud Neotrop Fauna & Environm 35: 185-194.

(for a complete list and PDFs go to my website at )